What is Stock fund?

Stock fund mainly invests in stocks, which are also known as equity. There are different types of equity funds, such as those based on company size (small, mid, or large) and investment approach (aggressive growth, income-oriented, value). Equity funds can also be categorized by whether they invest in U.S. stocks or foreign equities.

Value funds focus on investing in stocks that are considered undervalued by their managers, with the goal of achieving long-term growth once the market realizes the true value of these stocks. These companies typically have low P/E ratios, low price-to-book ratios, and offer dividend yields.

Growth funds focus on companies that have strong earnings, sales, and cash flow growth. These companies usually have high P/E ratios and do not distribute dividends. A “blend” investment is a mix of growth and value stocks, offering a balance between risk and reward.

Large-cap companies are those with a market value exceeding $10 billion. Market value is calculated by multiplying the share price by the total number of shares available. These companies are usually well-established and widely recognized. On the other hand, small-cap companies have a market value ranging from $250 million to $2 billion. These companies are often newer and carry higher investment risks. Mid-cap stocks fall in between small-cap and large-cap stocks, bridging the gap.

A mutual fund can mix various investment styles and company sizes. For instance, a fund focused on large-cap value may include large-cap companies that are financially stable but have recently experienced a decline in their stock prices. These companies would be placed in the upper left quadrant of the style box, which represents large and value. On the other hand, a small-cap growth fund would invest in startup technology companies with high potential for growth. This type of fund is positioned in the bottom right quadrant, representing small and growth.

How Stock fund(s) Work

Investing in a stock fund means purchasing shares of the fund, which then uses the money to buy stocks from different companies. This way, you can own a portion of multiple companies without needing a lot of money to buy individual stocks. Diversification helps lower your risk, protecting your investment if one company’s stock price drops.

Some Features of Stock fund(s)

  • Diversification: By owning shares in a stock fund, investors gain exposure to a basket of stocks, reducing risk compared to holding just a few individual stocks.
  • Professional Management: Fund managers oversee the investment process, selecting and monitoring stocks based on the fund’s objectives.
  • Cost-Effectiveness: Stock funds can be a cost-efficient way to invest, as they typically have lower fees than actively managed individual stock portfolios. There are also different types of stock funds with varying cost structures, such as index funds which generally have lower fees.

Buy and Sell

You have the option to purchase or sell shares of a stock fund using a brokerage account. The price of each share is determined by the net asset value (NAV) of the fund. This value is calculated by dividing the total value of all the fund’s holdings by the number of shares available. Unlike individual stocks, which can be traded at any time during the day, stock funds can only be bought or sold at the end of the trading day.


The performance of the underlying stocks determines the return on your investment in a stock fund. If the stocks in the fund increase in price, the value of your shares will also increase. However, there is a possibility of losing money if stock prices decline.


Stock funds are generally considered riskier compared to bonds and other types of investments.


Stock funds carry market risks, and their value may fluctuate. Before investing in a stock fund, it is crucial to assess your investment objectives and risk tolerance.